Informarions from Toba Volcano, ch_5 - Human evolution

blue: prehistoric lake at the time of Kota Tampan and other prehistoric features

black and grey: modern river Parak (Perak) with dam and reservoir

brown: modern roads with settlements

(map adapted from ref. Tjia H.D., 1993)

Çíàðÿääÿ ïðàö³

Çíàðÿääÿ ïðàö³


black: Africa
brown: Caucasus
red: Europe
blue: mainland Asia
green: insular Asia (Sundaland)
yellow: world-wide (not including the Americas)
white: world-wide (including the Americas)

1 Homo ergaster/African Homo erectus
2 Homo erectus javanensis
3a Homo floresiensis (alternative)
3b Homo floresiensis
Asian Homo erectus
5 Homo georgicus
Homo antecessor
Homo cepranensis
Homo heidelbergensis
9 Homo helmei
Homo neanderthalensis
11 Homo sapiens

Tools found in layers dated to more than 12,000 years ago and so probably left at the Liang Bua cave by Homo floresiensis. No trace of a Homo sapiens presence before 12,000 years ago has been found at the site (ref. Hopkin M., "The Life of a Hobbit", Nature 437/13: 935)